How does System.out.print() work?

System.out is just an instance of PrintStream. You can check its JavaDoc. Its variability is based on method overloading (multiple methods with the same name, but with different parameters).

This print stream is sending its output to so called standard output.

In your question you mention a technique called variadic functions (or varargs). Unfortunately that is not supported by PrintStream#print, so you must be mistaking this with something else. However it is very easy to implement these in Java. Just check the documentation.

And if you are curious how Java knows how to concatenate non-string variables "foo" + 1 + true + myObj, it is mainly responsibility of a Java compiler.

When there is no variable involved in the concatenation, the compiler simply concatenates the string. When there is a variable involved, the concatenation is translated into StringBuilder#append chain. There is no concatenation instruction in the resulting byte code; i.e. the + operator (when talking about string concatenation) is resolved during the compilation.

All types in Java can be converted to string (int via methods in Integer class, boolean via methods in Boolean class, objects via their own #toString, …). You can check StringBuilder’s source code if you are interested.

UPDATE: I was curious myself and checked (using javap) what my example System.out.println("foo" + 1 + true + myObj) compiles into. The result:

System.out.println(new StringBuilder("foo1true").append(myObj).toString());

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