You use a self join when a table references data in itself.
Employee table may have a
SupervisorID column that points to the employee that is the boss of the current employee.
To query the data and get information for both people in one row, you could self join like this:
select e1.EmployeeID, e1.FirstName, e1.LastName, e1.SupervisorID, e2.FirstName as SupervisorFirstName, e2.LastName as SupervisorLastName from Employee e1 left outer join Employee e2 on e1.SupervisorID = e2.EmployeeID