The error means that you are providing not as much data as the table
wp_posts does contain columns. And now the DB engine does not know in which columns to put your data.
To overcome this you must provide the names of the columns you want to fill. Example:
insert into wp_posts (column_name1, column_name2) values (1, 3)
Look up the table definition and see which columns you want to fill.
insert means you are inserting a new record. You are not modifying an existing one. Use
update for that.