How to get category id in single.php wordpress?

Use wp_get_post_categories()

Retrieve the list of categories for a post.

<?php wp_get_post_categories( $post_id, $args ) ?>

Be aware that the function returns an array (of category ids) even if you only have one category in your post.

The example below shows how categories are retrieved, and then additional information is retrieved for each category.

$post_categories = wp_get_post_categories( $post_id );
$cats = array();

foreach($post_categories as $c){
    $cat = get_category( $c );
    $cats[] = array( 'name' => $cat->name, 'slug' => $cat->slug );


Another Option:

Use get_the_terms();

    $id = get_the_id();
    $terms = get_the_terms( $id, 'category' );
    // print_r( $terms );
    foreach($terms as $term) {
        echo $term->cat_ID;