Meaning of *& and **& in C++

That is taking the parameter by reference. So in the first case you are taking a pointer parameter by reference so whatever modification you do to the value of the pointer is reflected outside the function. Second is the simlilar to first one with the only difference being that it is a double pointer. See …

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Is C++ Array passed by reference or by pointer?

At worst, your lecturer is wrong. At best, he was simplifying terminology, and confusing you in the process. This is reasonably commonplace in software education, unfortunately. The truth is, many books get this wrong as well; the array is not “passed” at all, either “by pointer” or “by reference”. In fact, because arrays cannot be passed by …

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Is null reference possible?

References are not pointers. 8.3.2/1: A reference shall be initialized to refer to a valid object or function. [Note: in particular, a null reference cannot exist in a well-defined program, because the only way to create such a reference would be to bind it to the “object” obtained by dereferencing a null pointer, which causes …

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